Dain All-Wheel Drive
The Dain All-Wheel Drive was the first tractor produced by John Deere, and had only a single rear wheel. In 1911, Deere purchased the Dain Manufacturing Company of Ottumwa, Iowa. The next year, Deere decided to design its own tractor, and Dain founder Joseph Dain Sr., was directed to design that tractor. After several prototypes, the design was finalized in 1917, and 100 production units were ordered. By 1919 when that production run was complete, Deere had purchased the Waterloo Boy company. Although the Dain AWD was ahead of its time, with features such as a shift-on-the-fly transmission, Deere halted production in late 1919, partly because the cost of the Dain tractor was double that of the Waterloo Boy, and partly because of the death of Dain Sr.
The predecessor of Waterloo Boy came about in 1892. It was made by thresherman John Froelich. It is called the Froelich tractor. Scale Models of Dyersville, Iowa made a 1/16 scale toy of this tractor. In March 1918 Deere & Company decided to continue its foray into the tractor business by purchasing the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company which manufactured the popular Waterloo Boy tractor at its facilities in Waterloo, Iowa.
Deere & Company continued to sell tractors under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923.
Model D (Spoker Model D)
Despite a rather severe farm economy depression at the time, Deere management decided to build a Model D prototype in 1923, designed by Muir L. Frey (father of Ford Mustang designer Donald N. Frey). The Deere Model D was produced from March 1, 1923 to July 3, 1953, the longest production span of all the two-cylinder John Deere tractors. Over 160,000 were made.
The first Model D rode on steel wheels with a 6.5 in × 7 in (170 mm × 180 mm) (later 6.75 in × 7 in (171 mm × 178 mm)) two-cylinder hand-cranked engine rated 15–27 hp (11–20 kW). It was not, however, the first tractor to bear the Deere name - as a number of Deere experimental tractors, and the John Deere Dain "All Wheel Drive" tractor (of which approximately 100 were produced during 1918 and 1919) had all carried the Deere name before the D.
By 1925, the company realized the standard Model D did not meet customers' needs for industrial applications. Steel wheels were not suitable for hard surfaces, and the gearing was too slow for safe road speeds. Solid rubber tires were added, and engineers fitted a 28-tooth sprocket to the final drive, giving a road speed of 4 mph (6.4 km/h). The company replaced the 465 cu in (7.62 l) two-cylinder engine with a 501 cu in (8.21 l). In 1926, Deere advertised the model as the "John Deere Industrial Tractor" with 40 × b inch[clarification needed] rear wheels and 24 in × 3.5 in (610 mm × 89 mm) fronts with solid tires. This became known as the "DI". Options also included wheel weights.
On June 20, 1928, the model designation was changed from "C" to "GP" to avoid confusion with the "D" when dealers were phoning in orders to the factory. "GP" stands for "General Purpose". This new model GP had the same horsepower, engine displacement, weight and three-speed transmission as the model C. The GP's first serial number was 200211 . In 1930, the GP was updated with a 25-horsepower, 339 cubic-inch engine.
The John Deere model GP was built in five distinct versions through the course of its production:
- The standard-front GP, or John Deere Standard, built from March 1928 to February 1935.
- The John Deere two-wheel tricycle-front GP, or GP-tricycle, of which twenty-three units were built between August 1928 and April 1929
- The John Deere GP wide-tread, or GPWT, built from November 1929 to November 1933
- The John Deere GP wide-tread Series P, a GPWT with narrowed rear tread width designed to suit potato rows, built between January and August 1930.
- The John Deere General Purpose orchard tractor, or "GPO", from April 1931 to April 1935. This tractor had specialized shielding for groves and orchards and around low-hanging branches. Some GPOs were fitted with crawler undercarriages from the Lindeman Brothers in Yakima, Washington. These are commonly known as "GPO Lindemans".
The John Deere Model A came off the assembly line in April 1934. The tractor was 25 hp, was 309 CID and had a four-speed transmission. There were eight different model A variations. Some of these were tricycle, hi-crop, orchard, single front tire and industrial models. The tricycle wheel design, patterned after that of the Farmall tractor, reduced steering effort and greatly increased maneuverability. The Model B was introduced in June 1934. This tractor had a shorter frame than the Model A, but it was eventually lengthened so it could use some of the same equipment that the larger models A and G used. There were also eight different Model B tractor variations, the same as the larger Model A.
The much larger G model arrived in 1937. It was fitted with a 36-horsepower, 425-cubic-inch engine and a four-speed transmission. John Deere publicized the G as a three-plow tractor and it was built until 1941 when the GM (G, Modernized) replaced it. The GM model was made from 1942 to 1947. The power was increased to 38 horsepower and a new six-speed transmission was also added. The G model got a restyled front at this point as did the other John Deere tractor models. The GM had electric starting and lighting added to it options. During its production time the G tractor was available as a hi-crop, single front wheel and styled.
Unstyled row crop tractors
Deere made their first unstyled rowcrop tractor in 1929 to compete with the Farmall. It was a modified GP tractor with adjustable rear axle track (distance between wheels on the same axle) and a narrow front end. In 1933 Deere started experimenting with what would come to be known as the Model A. The new model A went into production in 1934. The A launched Deere into the rowcrop farming market. The A was by far the most popular two-cylinder tractor that Deere produced. The next year the Model B was introduced. It was one third smaller than the A which made it ideal for smaller farms. A few years later, the Model G was introduced in 1937. It remained unstyled for several more years than the A and B. The unstyled tractors launched Deere into the rowcrop farming market which they are still a major part of today.
The Deere company very nearly went bankrupt in the Great Depression. Only a large order of tractors for the Soviet Union kept the company going.
In 1937 John Deere hired well known industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss from New York City to re-style Deere's agricultural equipment, especially its tractors. In the fall of 1937, a Deere tractor engineer was sent to New York to ask Dreyfuss to redesign the tractors. Legend has it that Dreyfuss was so intrigued by the project that he took a train to Waterloo that very night. Dreyfuss learned to operate the tractors and worked with them in the field to gain firsthand knowledge of the changes that needed to be made. The first two letter series tractors (the A and B) were the first to receive the new modern styling, and other models were added later. The Dreyfuss styling was intended to help John Deere compete with the forthcoming Farmall "letter series" of tractors, which, along with the Ford-Ferguson, were John Deere's largest competition at this time. Dreyfuss and the Waterloo engineers perfected the styled design that was used on all John Deere tractors with only minor changes through 1959.
The 1930s and 1940s saw a large number of different John Deere models emerge, as small farmers emerging from their Depression troubles increasingly turned from horses to tractors. John Deere's GM model was introduced in 1942, and was made until 1947. Power was increased to 38 hp and a new six-speed transmission was also added. The G model got a restyled front at this point as did the other John Deere tractors models. The GM had electric start and lights added to its options. During its production time the G tractor was available in hi-crop and single front wheel versions. The G was restyled in 1941 but did not start to roll off the assembly line until early 1942. Like the smaller A and B tractors the G model had the six-speed transmission added to it. In 1946, the 1946 model "D" had a 501-cubic-inch engine, which was enormous for the day. Two new additions to the tractor line, the M and R models, were also added.
After the models A and B got new styling, both tractors were given six-speed transmissions in late 1940. The A was 29 hp out of a 321 CID engine while the smaller B was both 18 and 23 hp reflecting the earlier and later updates between 1938 and 46. The 14.84 model H was given the Dreyfuss look from the time it was introduced in 1938. The H broke a fuel economy record when it was tested in Nebraska. This tractor also had three variations that came out in 1940-'41. The H tractor was 14.84 horsepower out of a 90 CID engine and had a three-speed transmission.
In 1939, the restyled model D appeared. The D was a 42 hp tractor, and weighed 5,300 pounds. Options available on this tractor included electric lighting and starting. In August 1940 John Deere introduced the new model LA which was followed by the model LI. The LA had a 77 CID engine with 14 belt horsepower. The John Deere G tractor was restyled in 1941 but did not start to roll off the assembly line until early 1942. Like the smaller A/B tractors the G model also had the 6-speed transmission, but also featured electric lights and electric start.
In 1947, John Deere opened a new tractor factory in Dubuque, Iowa, built to produce the John Deere M. The M was created to address the increasing demand for small tractors and compete with the increasingly popular Ford and the smaller Farmall tractor models. The M was the first Deere tractor to use a vertical two-cylinder engine, with a square bore and stroke of 4.0 × 4.0 inches (100.5cuin) with a high row crop.
1949–1959: diesels and post World War II production
After years of testing, John Deere released its first proper diesel tractor in 1949, the Model R. The R was also the first Deere tractor with a 'live' independent PTO equipped with its own clutch. The R also incorporated live hydraulics. PowrTrol, as it was known, provided the operator the ability to lift equipment by the pull of a lever. A pump powered by the PTO clutch provided 1800 PSI of hydraulic pressure to a lever controlled valve. At 45 hp at the drawbar and 50 hp at the belt, it was the most fuel-efficient tractor available at the time, and this combination of features resulted in over 21,000 being built. The model R had a shipping weight of 7,670 lb. The R was equipped with two engines. The primary plant is a two-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated 416 cubic inch (5.75 X 8 bore and stroke) direct injected diesel engine with a 16:1 compression ratio. The starting motor is also a Deere two-cylinder, 26 cubic-inch horizontally opposed gasoline engine. The starting or "pony" engine is electrically started by a six-volt electrical system, and is used to crank the diesel. Testing results with various electrical starting systems for the diesel proved to be too bulky requiring a 24- or 32-volt system. The design of the pony start Rs allowed for hot exhaust gasses to preheat the intake air for the diesel and a common liquid cooling system allowed the pony engine to warm the diesel block and head. This provided sufficient cold weather starting aids for the diesel that it would reliably run in sub zero conditions. The R did have several teething problems as this was Deere's first production diesel tractor. Available as a standard tractor only, it did not have an adjustable front axle, nor did it have a three-point hitch. The engine was mainly an up-scaled gasoline engine from the Model D. The use of a thermosiphon cooling system and the lack of a three-point bearing crankshaft proved inadequate for diesel compression ratios. The R was prone to overheating and cracking the cylinder head. The lack of a center main bearing in the crankshaft allowed the shaft to flex when used as a stationary powerplant on the belt; this would lead to its failure. The live PTO was directed through (2) 45° bevel gears that proved too small to durably transmit the full torque of the engine. The tractor was fully serviceable at pulling larger equipment efficiently on large acre wheatland farms.
During the 1950s, the R saw a series of upgrades in the models 80, 820 and 830. The 80 was produced for two years and 3,500 were produced. It had new features, including power steering and dual hydraulics. It developed 68 hp and weighed 8,100 pounds. The 80 also corrected the other design flaws within the R such as using a water pump and pressure radiator cap and the addition of a center crankshaft main bearing.
The 820 and 830 were similar overall, but also differed in their sheet metal exteriors, fuel tank designs and color schemes. The 820, a larger version of the 720 and the 720, was basically the same as the 70, except for the model number and that the sides of the hood are painted JD yellow. The 720 was upgraded to the 730 for 1959. The 730 featured more contoured bodywork than the 720 and came with more ergonomic features for the operator. Although the 730 had a short production run it became one of John Deere's most popular models. The 730 also featured power steering and 24-volt electric starter motor instead of the V4 pony start engine. The 730 was available in diesel, gasoline and LPG as well as in row crop tricycle, row crop wide front, standard tread and hi crop wide front formats. The 730 is very popular with tractor pulling enthusiasts because of its weight, power and slow speed. Plus its good looks have become popular with tractor restorers. The 730 was a 59 hp tractor at the belt and 54 at the drawbar.
After making more than 1 1⁄4 million two-cylinder tractors, John Deere switched to four- and six-cylinder engines. Announcement of the change came after seven years of development and forty million dollars in retooling.
In October 1959 the company showcased a new large 215 hp 4WD, called the 8010, on the Robert Ottilie Seed Farm north of Marshalltown, Iowa. It was shown during the largest farming field days event held in Iowa up to that time. Only 100 8010s were built, and 99 of those were rebuilt at the factory and re-released as 8020s in 1960.
ARTICLES SOURCES : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_John_Deere_tractors